To live under a peaceful sky, on a peaceful land is the main dream of mankind. Living in your own house in peace and quiet and going to work with inspiration early in the morning, isn’t this a source of happiness, a happy life?! Today it is clear to everyone that the principles that serve the Turkmen people, as well as all humanity in the name of prosperity, are rooted in the doctrine of neutrality.
Neutrality is the confidence of our people in peacefulness and development. The permanent neutrality of Turkmenistan means the peaceful direction of foreign policy, the peaceful development of international relations, the promotion of global security and sustainable development, as well as active international cooperation, which contributes to the development of friendly relations and cooperation relations between countries. The concept of neutrality is an expression brought to the level of holiness for the Turkmen people, which has taken an indelible place in our hearts, which has a deep political meaning and embodies the national moral and legal principles of the Turkmen people. The degree of neutrality is primarily a historical result of the internal potential of our state, the spiritual revival of our people.
2020 marks twenty-five years since the recognition of the resolution on the permanent neutrality of Turkmenistan by the most prestigious organization in the world – the UN. We also strive to uncover the history, concept and meaning of permanent neutrality in this scientific article.
The consciousness of the Turkmen people is focused on treating people as the most precious value. The fact that our country has been the heart of the Great Silk Road for many centuries has allowed our national culture to become closer to the cultures of other peoples. This phenomenon, in turn, formed among the Turkmen a habit of peacefulness, openness to the world, adherence to the principles of neutrality, without interference in the internal affairs of other peoples. This fact is fully confirmed by various memorials and agreed agreements of historians, lawyers and philosophers that have come down to us since ancient times.
In the ancient world, obligations of neutrality were expressed in special agreements. The Parthians had to retreat when the armies of the Seleucids II invaded the Great Parthian Kingdom, which had just gained independence in 237 BC. A way out of this situation was found by King Arsak as a result of a treaty of neutrality with the Greco-Bactrian state, and in 236 BC. he was able to defeat the army of the Seleucids, when the Kushan kingdom became stronger and began to compete with Parthia, they were able to defend their lands, having concluded such a treaty with Parthia and the Roman Empire in the 60s of our era, a treaty of neutrality with Khorezm before the Seljuks war against the Ghaznavids, the choice the neutral direction of the commander of the Yomut troops of Ammaniyaz Serdar, preventing his army from participating in the war when the Khyva army invaded Mary in 1847, Atamyrat Khan also chose this direction when the Khyva Khan Mademin Khan invaded Sarakhs in 1855, shows that the habit our people follow the principles of neutrality comes from ancient times.
In the 19th century, the principles of neutrality began to be perceived as a separate concept and degree. World scientists give different definitions to this level. For example, in the comments of British scientists it is described as follows: “The independence and inviolability of a neutral state is guaranteed by an international treaty, but instead it should not wage a war against any state, with the necessary defense and the results should not be involved in indirect actions that could lead to interstate war”.
Non-interference in a war between states during hostilities is one of the foundations of a permanently neutral state. Declaring war on a permanently Neutral state to another state invalidates its Neutrality, but a permanent neutral state can use its strength for necessary defense. Permanently neutral states should not participate in war during the war period and must comply with the requirements of the 1907 The Hague and some other international treaties. A permanent neutral state must pursue a policy that does not lead to war in peacetime. It is possible that such a policy would not have been given to the belligerent states or alliances if this state did not enter into military blocs and alliances. Our policy of neutrality is also guided by these principles.
On December 12, 1995, the permanent neutrality of Turkmenistan was recognized unanimously with the support of 185 states at the UN General Assembly, one of the most prestigious organizations in the world. On this day, the history of the Turkmen people was written in golden letters. It is a great honor for the state of Turkmenistan to be the first to receive the status of a permanent neutral state from the United Nations.
Neutrality allowed every Turkmen to follow the path of our ancestors and follow our national traditions. This sacred word, which has become the pride of hearts, today sounds like a guarantee that each of us will live a peaceful, happy life. Today, every citizen of Turkmenistan sees permanent neutrality as a guarantee of a peaceful life and confidence in the future. Today’s Foreign Policy Neutrality, chosen by our country, attracts the attention not only of the Asian region, but of the whole world. The basic principles of the policy of permanent neutrality, which form the basis of Turkmenistan’s foreign policy, are also based on the common good. They consist of the following:
- The permanent neutrality of Turkmenistan is aimed at developing friendly, mutually beneficial relations with the countries of the region and the world;
- Turkmenistan pursues a peaceful foreign policy and builds its relations with other states on the basis of equality, mutual respect and non-interference in their internal affairs;
- Turkmenistan undertakes not to take part in wars or military conflicts, as well as to engage in political, diplomatic or other activities that may lead to war or military conflict;
- Has the right to seek assistance from the UN in the event of military aggression against Turkmenistan;
- Permanent neutrality in Turkmenistan does not mean the absence of its own national army.
The Turkmen people are a people respecting the traditions of neighborhood and brotherhood, and in an era of prosperity, such positive relations are characterized by the development of interstate, regional and international levels, and our constant neutrality is a beacon in this work. In this regard, our Dear President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov said: “Turkmenistan is committed to the principles of Independence and Permanent Neutrality of our Motherland and will lead us to a bright future based on the path of peace, friendship, brotherhood and mutually beneficial cooperation.” [1, 11c.], Shows the new principles of the concept of neutrality in the world.
Loving freedom more than life, having made a sign of their honor, word, dignity, having gone through difficult thousand-year paths, it is not difficult to imagine how desirable the concepts of Independence and permanent Neutrality are for the Turkmen people. In this regard, our Hero Arkadag said: “Neutrality has opened up wide opportunities for us to live in peace and harmony and strengthen our sacred Independence.” [1, p. 25] and draws our attention to the fact that these concepts concentrate the spiritual forces and capabilities of the nation.
Independence and permanent neutrality are forces that ensure unity, a prosperous life, directing the endless power of the people in a certain direction. But it is necessary not only to possess these forces, but also to direct them on a new path for the benefit of our country and people. And this can only be done with the help of a wise leader who will lead only to progress.
Today, the Turkmen people have such a national Leader. The years of independence are a period of peace that has revived the Turkmen destiny. During this period, our people entered a period of transition, the era of the New Renaissance and great reforms from February 19, 2008 to the era of prosperity of the Sovereign State on February 24, 2012. Today we are seeing great progress in all areas of our country.
In a period of prosperity and power, in our Neutral State, the doctrine proclaimed by our Honorable President: “The State is for the people!” shows its clear results. The content of the national doctrine includes education, science, culture, progress, and the goal is the spiritual and moral renewal of society, raising people’s awareness and personal responsibility for the development of the changes that have occurred, and all this is to develop and improve education on a scientific basis. This teaching is the most reasonable, humane and fully consistent with the interests and aspirations of the people. As a result, the Turkmen people have become a single nation. The interests of the nation and the state have become the interests of every Turkmen. “Having achieved neutrality, Turkmenistan took a worthy place in the policy of international relations,” said our esteemed President. [1, 25p.] Which fully confirms the truth.
Only in a peaceful country will there be prosperity. Fates flourish only in a peaceful country, and the wealth and blessings of the earth are absorbed into the happy life of people. The year 2020, declared the year of “Turkmenistan-country of Neutrality” on the state initiative of our Respected President, was remembered for unforgettable, decisive events, such as the celebration of the twenty-five-year anniversary, the development of health, sports and tourism, the development of science and education, the introduction of new achievements of science and technology, a comprehensive harmonious development, training of qualified specialists, the work done to improve the national legal framework, and many other works performed that are valuable.
In a period of prosperity and power, our country actively participates in international politics under the leadership of our esteemed President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. Thanks to the efforts of the National Leader of our people, glorious directions are passing. In these ancient places, where traces of cave dust were laid, the foundation of a new Happy Life is being laid. The prestige of our country is further enhanced by the achievements of our independence and permanent neutrality. The value of this sacred concept is enhanced by the prudent wisdom of our esteemed President in the Age of well-being and becomes the foundation of our society.
Unity, solidarity and goodwill are essential conditions for prosperity. They are an integral principle of the Turkmen people. Compliance with these principles has made us an authoritative state in all organizations, starting with the UN. Today Turkmenistan has established diplomatic relations with 138 countries of the world. Our permanently neutral country is currently a member of 44 international organizations participating in 131 international conventions and treaties.
On December 10, 2007, the UN Office for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia was opened in Ashgabat – one of the new principles in international relations. Open to Central Asia and the Caspian region, the center is the first in a very delicate and uncomplicated system of world diplomacy.
In its work, the Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy (OSCE), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and other regional organizations, promotes coordination and communication at a high level. It also conducts analysis in the region, ensuring that steps are taken to promote peace and stability and ensuring a unified approach to humanitarian assistance.
The UN Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia is currently working to save the Aral Sea, use the region’s agricultural opportunities to ensure food security, ensure peace in Afghanistan and restore its economy, protect motherhood and children and protect the rights of refugees and the whole world, coordinate specific measures aimed at deepening mutually beneficial political relations, expanding economic cooperation, developing good-neighborly relations and further strengthening the international legal framework for stability and security.
Our esteemed President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov is currently recognized as an active participant in international politics. The election of our country as a member of the UN Commission on Population and Development for 2012-2015, a member of the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs for 2012-2015, as well as the Executive Committee of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. This is the result of cooperation between Turkmenistan and the UN.
06/03/2015 Unanimous adoption of the Resolution “On the Permanent Neutrality of Turkmenistan” adopted at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly with the unanimous support of 193 countries, and recognition of December 12, 2017 as the “Day of International Neutrality” in connection with the recognition of the status of permanent neutrality of Turkmenistan once again serves as evidence.
The efforts of Permanently Neutral Turkmenistan and its Respected President to promote peace throughout the world are being implemented not only as an important initiative, but also on the basis of concrete actions. Among them are the opening of the International Seaport, the international railway Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran in Turkmenbashi. This new path will help ensure sustainable development and security in Asia, as well as add additional stability to the entire system of political relations on the continent.
Turkmenistan proves that neutrality is not only an honorary degree, but also an active struggle for peace and reconciliation. Our esteemed President strives to bring the level of neutrality closer, in no way restricting relations with neighboring and other countries, but to develop mutually beneficial and good relations with all countries of the world.
The fact that now the countries of the world are looking at our country with great interest is the result of a balanced foreign and domestic policy of our esteemed President. In his external relations, our esteemed President is guided by the internal needs of the country. In this regard, foreign policy is primarily a way of protecting and recognizing the interests of the state.
Supporting stability and security in the world, establishing friendly relations with countries of the world and close cooperation with major international organizations, especially with the United Nations, are the priorities of our country’s foreign policy. The international initiatives of our esteemed President aimed at energy security, sustainable use of water resources, security of all peoples of the world, ensuring global peace throughout the world and jointly combating threats to humanity are rooted in the interests of all mankind. Because it takes time for everyone to work together as one soul, one body to ensure lasting peace, global security and sustainable development on Earth. These are the main goals of the United Nations Millennium Development Program. All efforts of the Dear President are aimed at ensuring that Turkmenistan makes a worthy contribution to the implementation of these goals.
It is the greatest happiness to understand the importance of neutrality, to feel its value in your heart and to live in its depths. Peace, tranquility and unity are qualities that are inherent in the blood and spirit of the Turkmen people. Even harsh historical trials failed to change the essence of the Turkmens in this regard.
In the history of diplomatic art, our country was able to come to the fore, relying on its level of permanent neutrality. As the President noted, “Turkmen neutrality is now considered an integral and important part of ensuring stability at the regional and international levels.” [1, 85s.]
The following conclusions are drawn from the above data, that is, time reveals the characteristics of each historical period. In this sense, the fruits of our sacred independence and neutrality towards our people are incomparable. During this short historical period, high achievements in all spheres of our country are the result of the great work of our esteemed President for the benefit of his people.
In the history of international relations, the young Turkmen state explored the use of permanent neutrality in solving foreign policy problems and managed to add its own innovations to modern diplomacy.
Neutrality is a doctrine that calls on peoples to peace and happiness throughout the world. May the foundation of our Permanent Neutrality continue to be strengthened. May the life of our Dear President be prosperous, his deeds in the name of the people, nation and peace will be successful!
Divanova Jemal(Turkmenistan) – Judge of the Mary District Court
Geldiyev Ahmet(Turkmenistan) –Teacher of the Department of Social
Sciences of the State Institute of
Energy of Turkmenistan